However, if there comes a time when you choose to share your writing with others, you may wish to revise the rough draft into a more readable copy. This is the time to invite the inner editor to join you in a healthy, critique session. No berating or or self-deprecation allowed. This is simply an opportunity for the two of you to collaborate in a meaningful way.
- Redundancy (words): We all have them. A favorite word of phrase that we tend to overuse. While this is generally overlooked in conversation, it is hard to ignore on the written page. As you review the rough draft, take notice of any repeating words. Those used more than couple of times probably have suitable replacements. Mind you, we aren’t looking to show off vocabulary skills (obscure words are more detrimental than repetition) … but see if you can change one or two instances to an appropriate synonym.
- Redundancy (ideas): Trust your reader. If you write clearly, they will understand your message. You don’t need to beat them over the head. Say what you need to say clearly, succinctly, and with sensory detail, and they will pick up the intended message the first time. It is not the amount of words that matter. Concise and Precise are the hallmarks of good writing.
- Limit Adverbs: You know… those -ly words that typically describe HOW. The need for adverbs is usually because the chosen verb is weak. For example: instead of “talked softly” use “whispered” … instead of “ran quickly” use “darted” or “sprinted” or “dashed”. This revision takes little thought yet greatly improves the final copy.
- Le mot juste: a french expression for “just the right word” and I must confess, this is a personal pet peeve. All graduating students knew that Mrs. Totoro would not accept the words get, got, or things on a final draft. Why? Because they are too generic. For example, we do not go to the store to “get” some milk – we buy milk. And a student never “got” an A on one of my tests, they earned it. A snake may crawl in the grass, but a better word might be slithered. You get the idea. Precise language is always preferable.
- Sentence Fluency (variety of sentence beginnings): Sentence Fluency has to do with the way the writing flows. And fluid writing makes for easy reading. When reviewing the rough draft, check to see that sentences don’t always start with the same word or phrase. One way to combat this issue is to occasionally start with a prepositional phrase or a subordinate clause (too much grammar information? sorry…perhaps that can be the subject of another post).
- Sentence Fluency (variety of sentence lengths): On a subconscious (or perhaps conscious) level, you are familiar with this rule. Too many consecutive short sentences makes for choppy writing. Too many consecutive long sentences makes the writing ramble. You want to be sure to include a variety of short, medium, and long sentences throughout the piece. This way, the writing flows from one idea to another, and the reader effortlessly follows.
- Paragraphing: I’m sure you remember from high school English to use one paragraph per thought/idea. This is a good rule of thumb. However… we also need to be mindful of our reading audience. If paragraphs are too long (say more than one-third page), readers only sees a huge block of text. The lack of white space exhausts the eyes, and they are more inclined to skim rather than read. Be mindful of shorter paragraphs and you will entice your audience to read every word.
- Shorten passage of time: It’s okay to take creative license when writing non-fiction. Yes, we must honor the truth of the message, but we are allowed (encouraged) to edit for the sake of the narrative flow. The key to maintaining reader interest is to keep the action moving forward. One way to do this is to focus on one event at a time. Don’t feel compelled to document everything that happens within a certain time period. Another way to propel the story forward is to skip insignificant details. Don’t document every moment if nothing compelling happens. Simply indicate the passage of time and continue with the story.
- Show don’t Tell: the mantra of all writing how-to books. What does this pithy saying mean? Simply… use sensory detail when possible. Rather than saying it was cold outside (telling), show the effects of weather: chattering teeth, blustery snow, icicles forming on the windows. Or rather than saying he was angry, show anger by describing facial features (a scowl or pursed lips), stomping feet or clinched fists.